Medieval Rus′

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Cyrillic text in written work in this course may be retained in Cyrillic or transliterated. The three systems of transliteration in broad popular use are the Library of Congress System with and without diacritics and the international scholarly system. You may use any of these systems, but your choice should be consistent within a particular work. A chart of the Library of Congress system is available at and a chart of the scholarly system is available at Note that in all of these systems the hard and soft signs are properly represented by the double (″) and single (′) prime characters, respectively, and not by double or single quotation marks. You can copy and paste the prime characters from this page if you have trouble entering them in other ways.

Should you need to transliterate Cyrillic writing for languages other than modern Russian, please ask your instructor for additional information.

If your bibliography is transliterated, you may sort it in one of two ways, either by ignoring all diacritics (so that, for example, c [= Cyrillic ц] and č [= ч] are interalphabetized) or by putting letters with diacritics after their counterparts without diacritics (č after c). If you keep Cyrillic sources in Cyrillic in your bibliography, without transliteration, you should provide two separate alphabetized lists, one in Cyrillic and one in Latin (either may come first).